Lichens became famous since ancient times. Another great theophrast, who is considered the «father of Botany,» described two types of lichens — Rochelle and manage. Already in those years, they were actively used to produce coloring and aromatic substances. True, at that time, lichens were often called with MKHAM, then algae, then «Natural Chaos».
After that, a long time, scientists had to attract lichens to lower plants and only recently refer to a separate form, which now has more than 25,840 different representatives. The exact number of such species at the moment is unknown, but every year more and more new species appear.
Scientists conduct research on lichens, and they were able to establish that such vegetation is capable of living in both acidic and alkaline medium. More important is that lichens are more than 15 days can live without air and outside our atmosphere.
All varieties of lichens represent colonies that are in symbiosis of algae mushrooms, as well as cyanobacteria.
Lichens and laboratory conditions are obtained. To do this, it is easy to cross the appropriate type of mushroom with bacteria and algae.
The word «lichen» occurred due to the visual similarity of these organisms with the skin, referred to as «deprive».
The growth rate of each type of lichen is small: less than 1 cm per year. Those lichens, which grow in cold climate, rarely grow over a year more than 3-5 mm.
Of the most famous varieties of mushrooms, lichens are formed by about 20 percent. The number of algae that lichens is recreated, even less. More than half of all lichens in their own composition have a unicellular green algae climbing.
Many lichens become animal feed. This is especially true in the north.
Lichenics are capable of falling into a lifeless state without water, but when obtaining water, they begin to act again. Situations are known to be known when such vegetation revived after being in inactive state over the course of 42 years.
As was established by paleontologists, on our planet, lichens arose long before the existence of the first dinosaurs. The most ancient fossil of this type had an age of 415.000,000.
Lichens grow quite slow pace, but they live for a long time. They are able to live hundreds, and sometimes thousands of years. Lichens are one of the most long-lived organisms.
Lichens do not have roots, but they are strongly attached to the substrate with special increases, which are located at the bottom of Taloma.
Lichens are considered bioindicator organisms. They grow only in environmentally friendly territories, and therefore they cannot be met in huge megalopolis and industrial places.
There are such varieties of lichens, which are used as a dye.
The name of the 44th president of the United States Barack Obama was named a new type of lichen. It was opened in 2007 in the process of scientific research in California. It was the first type of vegetation on the ground called the name of the president.
Scientists managed to prove that the lichen in itself has amino acids that are indispensable for the human body.
On the therapeutic properties of lichens knew from antiquity. Already in ancient Greece they were used in the treatment of light diseases.
The ancient Egyptians had to use lichens to fill the mummy body cavities.
Of all the lichens growing on the territory of our state, about 40 species were listed in the Red Book.
Lichens are the first to settle on various substrates and initiate soil formation by paving the rest of the rest.
Photosynthesis of the Alpine Lichen does not stop at air temperature — 5 ° C, and the photosynthetic apparatus of their dry talls is saved without impairment at a temperature of 100 ° C.
By type of nutrition, lichens are considered auto heterotrophs. They can simultaneously store solar energy, and decompose mineral and organic components.
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