During World War II, the United States was concerned about the obvious superiority of the Germans in the air. And desperately searched for any ways that could give them to pilots advantages in air combat. Therefore, in 1942, the US Navy issued an order to build an experimental aircraft called XF5U-1. It was intended for use as an aircraft that can take off and sit on the aircraft carrier deck. Externally, these products resembled flying plates.
Even before the war, the aeronautics engineer named Charles Zimmerman was fascinated by the capabilities that the aircraft made in the form of a thin disk may have. Zimmerman, worked at the US National Advisory Committee. And tested several unmanned models, which ultimately led to the development of the aforementioned structure. A similar pan-shaped form would allow the aircraft to work well at high speeds, creating a very small resistance. And at low speeds would prevent dumping.
Most of the traditional designs of aircraft use compromise construction schemes. Because the plane needs long wings that help him take off and land at very low speeds. This allows you to build shorter runways. And take on board a big payload. However, as speed increases, long wings create too much air resistance. And spend more energy. That is why modern jet fighters have short wings. They allow you to fly very quickly. But there is a minus. The plane becomes difficult to plant. Because if the plane with small wings will fly too slowly, it will have little lift. And he will fall apart. That is, just falls. Some modern aircraft can solve solve this problem. They use the technology that allows you to change the area of the wing as needed. The design of Zimmerman promised to do the same without mechanical difficulties associated with changing the geometry of the wing in flight.
The XF5U-1 prototypes were equipped with two 1600-strong engines. They drove double screws located on the front of the aircraft. The pilot was located in a bubble vest, which was located approximately in the center of the saucer. Small vertical and horizontal tailings were located on the back of the ship. Zimmerman calculated that such an aircraft will be able to develop the maximum speed of 700 kilometers per hour. But at the same time it will be able to fly and at a speed of only 65 kilometers per hour. The inventor believed that if you use even more powerful engines, the fighter will be able to develop speed up to 850 kilometers per hour. And take off almost vertically. This idea was tested on the piloted prototype called the V-173. This plane made more than 100 successful flights. After that, two XF5U1 fighter prototypes were made.
By the time XF5U-1 was ready, the war was already over. And the US Navy became interested in reactive aircraft more traditional designs.
XF5U-1 never flew and were destroyed.
The next attempt to create an aircraft in the form of a saucer was the project VZ-9V Avrocar. British concern Avro Aircraft has developed a rounded plane. In the product scheme, a central fan was used, driven by three turbojet engines. This allowed to achieve the possibility of vertical take-off. After takeoff, the direction of the engine thrust was shifted back. And the vehicle began to move forward. And the round wing created lifting force.
VZ-9V had about six meters in diameter. And the central fan was a half-meter width. The aircraft flew well at low heights — up to two meters. But when he tried to rise above, his flight became unstable. It was a problem. And the aircraft appeared a complex mechanical system, which should automatically control the stability of the ship. However, she so really did not earn. In 1961, spending 10 million dollars, the US Air Force refused the project.
Nevertheless, more and more constructors of the aircraft found the shape of a saucer. In 1954, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, the same company, which later created the U-2 super secret aircraft, and the SR-71 aircraft «BlackBird» and F-117A «Stealth Fighter» applied for a patent for the invention of an aircraft in the form Soccer. The company engineers were convinced that such a form would provide excellent structural rigidity, stable vertical movement, good aerodynamic efficiency and a lot of space inside the aircraft for the placement of fuel and payload. However, the disappel from Lockheed never no one saw.
And yet one flying plate was built. It was «Sikorsky Cypher». This flying robot with a diameter of about two meters was designed for remote intelligence. Unlike V-173 and similar structures, it is a saucer — not a wing. And the casing for the rotating wing. The product worked on the principle of helicopter. It could hang and slowly fly using his camcorder for espionage. This flying saucer was designed for use during military operations. Her like saucer hook prevented a contact of a rotating rotor with branches of trees and wires. This allowed to use a helicopter on narrow urban streets.
Some objects reflect radio waves better than others. And flat do it in a strictly defined direction.
The F-117A and B-2 aircraft are invisible because they do not reflect radar waves back to the radar receiver. And, moreover, made of special materials. Therefore, a flat form that flying plates have is very interesting in terms of disguise.
Can the military today develop a super secret aircraft who knows how to carry out a vertical takeoff and landing? And while similar to a flying disc? Why not. (Maybe this is what they do in zone 51)? Difficulties that have pursued earlier projects such as Avrocar, in our time, may well be solved. Considered the same computer control systems to put such an unstable plane on the wing as F-117A. Therefore, no reasons for which the same could not be done with respect to a flying plates with a jet engine.
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