Materials for creating artificial organs. Transplantation of organs — the cultivation of organs for humans. Hybrids among us
Artificial human organs will soon be grown in the clinic in St. Petersburg under construction under the Kirov Military Medical Academy. The decision on the construction of the clinic was adopted by the Minister of Defense. The multidisciplinary center is planned to equip the most modern equipment, which will allow the stem cells in the most detailed way. Scientific and technical department, which will occur with cellular technologies, has already been formed.
«The main focus of the department will be the creation of a biological bank and the creation of opportunities for growing artificial organs,» says the head of the department of the organization of scientific work and the preparation of scientific and pedagogical personnel of the Academy of Evgeny Ivchenko. — Russian scientists have long been working on artificial bodies. «
Two years ago, department head of the Federal Research Center of Transplantation and Artificial Organs, Academician VI Shumakova Murat Shagidulin announced the creation of an artificial analogue of the liver suitable for transplant. Scientists were able to get an artificial liver, and test it in a non-clinical environment. Organ grown based on cell-free frame liver from which beforehand by a special process removed all the tissue. Only the protein structure of blood vessels and other body components. Frame seeded with autologous bone marrow cells and liver. Animal experiments have shown that if grown element implanted in the liver or small intestine bryzzheyku, he was instrumental in the regeneration of tissue and give a full recovery of the damaged organ function. The animal is a model of acute and chronic liver failure. And grown element allowed to increase the survival rate in half. A year after the implantation all animals were still alive. Meanwhile died about 50% of the individuals in the control group. Seven days after implantation in the main group biochemical parameters of liver function have been at the level of standards. After 90 days after transplanting into the small intestine bryzzheyku scientists found there viable hepatocytes and new vessels that have sprouted across the element frame.
«Studies in the field of creating such complex bio-engineering bodies, as the liver, kidneys, light and heart, in recent years are conducted in the leading scientific laboratories of the United States and Japan, but on the stage of study on the animal model they have not yet advanced, — comments the head of the experimental transplantology department and Artificial authorities of Murat Shagidulin. — Our experiences on animals went well. Three months after transplantation in animal bodies, healthy liver cells and new blood vessels have discovered. This spoke about the process of regenerating the transplanted liver, and the fact that she was accustomed. «
Japanese scientists from the University of Yokohama managed to raise the liver in a size of several millimeters. They were able to do this due to induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs). The grown liver works as a full-fledged organ. According to the head of the research team of Professor Hiyki Taniguti, the stirring copes with the processing of harmful substances as effective as the real human body. Scientists hope to start clinical trials of artificial liver in 2019. New organs created in the laboratory will transplant patients with severe liver diseases to maintain its normal functions.
Somewhat earlier, Japanese scientists laboratory by almost close to the latest discovery — a fully functioning kidney, could replace the real thing. Prior to this prototype artificial kidney created. But they failed to properly withdraw the urine (inflated by pressure). However, the Japanese have corrected the situation. Experts have quite successfully transplanted artificial kidneys of pigs and rats.
Dr. Takashi Yooko and his colleagues at the Medical School of the University Dzinkey using stem cells, but not just raised the kidney tissue and grown, and the drain pipe, and bladder. In turn, the rats, and then the pigs, were incubators that are already developed and grew embryonic tissue. When combined with a new kidney in the body of existing animal bladder system work as a whole. The urine was of the transplanted kidney transplanted into the bladder, and only after that it gets in the urinary bladder of an animal. Observations showed that the system worked and eight weeks after transplantation.
According to scientists, in perspective, it may be possible to create and full implants of voice ligaments for people. Researchers gathered fragments of tissue of four people suffering from problems with voice ligaments. These patients were deleted. There was also a closed fabric from one deceased donor. Experts isolated, cleaned and raised the cells of the mucous membrane in a particular three-dimensional structure, imitating human body environment. In about two weeks, the cells have grown and formed a fabric reminiscent of elasticity and stickiness real voice ligaments. Then experts joined the received voice bundles to artificial trachea and missed the moistened air through them. When the air reached ligaments, the fabric vibrated and produced the sound, as it happened under normal conditions in the body. In the near future, doctors are waiting for the resulting result on people in need.
The first transplantation operation of the organs of the patient’s cells will be held in Krasnodar, the last preparations for it are now. In total, two such transplants were conducted in the world, for the Russian surgeons, this is the first experience. Previously, only donor bodies transplanted in the country.
«This is an artificially grown trachea, which will also cause patient’s own cells,» explains the chief doctor of the Krasnodar Territory Clinical Hospital No. 1 Vladimir Porkhanov.
The frame for the future organ was constructed in American and Swedish laboratories from nanocomposite material.
This is an exact copy of the patient’s trachea who needs an operation. Externally looks like a tube of elastic porous plastic, on which the doctors plant their own patient’s cells isolated from bone marrow. For 2-3 days the base of the trachea is formed. The patient’s body does not only reject it, but on the contrary, the transplanted body itself begins to adapt to new conditions.
«Then cells will be differentiated, create their own microenvironment, produce tissue. After all, the cage when living, there are many processes in it. It will take place in its body, «says a transfusion physician, an employee of the Lab cultivation of the Krasnodar Regional Clinical Hospital No. 1 Irina Gilevich.
Paolo McCiarini on points is studying with the surgeons of the Krasnodar hospital the course of the future operation. He is the author of the method of transplanting artificially grown trachea. The first operation spent last year in Sweden. She lasted 12 hours. How long does this transplantation take, doctors do not speak. After all, for the first time in the world, not only artificial trachea will be transferred, but also part of the larynx.
«During the operation, excision will be performed and all scar tissue has been removed, that is, it will be necessary to remove part of the larynx, then the cavity is released and put the trachea to this place. It is very difficult, because there is a number of voice ligaments, «explains the professor of regenerative surgery of the Caroline Institute (Sweden) Paolo McCiarini.
Artificial authorities will be transferred to two patients. These are people who have surrendered trachea trauma a few years ago. During this time, they had many operations, the improvement after which did not follow. Transplantation for such patients is the only chance for recovery and full-fledged life.
While the life of the patients is painted on schedule and mainly consists of prohibitions: you can not swim, you can not talk and even laugh. The respiratory tract is open, in the throat of tracheostomas — a special tube through which patients are now breathing.
«After this operation, the patient will be able to quietly speak, breathe,» says Paolo McCiarini.
In the future, frameworks for artificial organs plan to create in Russia. Professor McCyarini, together with the Kuban Medical University, won a government megagrant to conduct research on the regeneration of the tissues of the respiratory tract and lung. Now on the territory of the university is building a laboratory in which scientists will engage in the study of regeneration mechanisms.
«Here will work here techniques and cells of cell discharge, setting on these cells of cells, cultivation of cells and work out scientific moments,» says Sergey Alekseyenko’s rector of the Kuban State Medical University.
Results of scientists will make it easier for life difficult to ill people, they will no longer have to wait for a suitable donor. In the future, scientists plan to use a similar technique when transplanting skin, artificial arteries, heart valves and more complex organs.
On the day of the medical worker, which is celebrated today, at 17:20 the first channel will show the «Calling» National Award Ceremony. She is awarded to the best doctors for outstanding achievements.
Scientists for the first time created a man and pig chimeura — an article that tells about this experiment was published on January 26 in the Cell scientific journal. The international team of scientists under the leadership of Juan Carlos — BELMONTE, Professor of the Institute of Biological Studies, Solk (USA), has grown embryos in the body of pigs containing human stem cells in the body. Of the two thousand hybrid embryos 186, they developed into organisms in which the human part was one by ten thousand cells.
Chimeras — organisms that are invoked in honor of the monster from the Greek myths connecting the goat, the lion and the snake — as a result of the compound of the genetic material of the two animals, but without the recombination of DNA (that is, the exchange of genetic information that occurs when the child is conceived). As a result, Himer has two sets of genetically heterogeneous cells, but they function as a whole organism. During the experiment, which Cell writes, scientists were taken out of the pregnant sow embryos and set them down the induced human stem cells, after which the embryos were sent back to develop in the body of the pig. The chimers not allowed to be born — they got rid of them at the early stage of pregnancy female.
One of the -headeds of the experiment is the cultivation of human organs by the body of animals. Some patients are waiting for a queue for transplantation, and the creation of biological material by takim would be able to save thousands of lives. «We are still far from this, but the first and important step is made,» says Belmont. The human body grown in a chimera from his own cell cells would solve the problem of transplant rejection by the patient’s body, as it would be grown from its own cells.
Develop human organs in the body of an animal scientists are collected using gene editing (namely, the innovative CRISPR-CAS9 method). Initially, the Embryo Animal DNA will change so that it does not develop the necessary organ, such as a heart or liver. Such a «niche» will fill human stem cells.
Experiments show that in the chimera you can create almost any organ — even one that does not provide for the experimental animal. Another experiment of the same group of scientists showed that the subfolding to the body of the stem rat cells allows you to grow a gall bubble, although there are no evolutionary to the mice of this organ.
Back in 2010, Japanese scientists have created the pancreas for rats in the same way. The team of Welmont was able to grow in the body of the mouse also a rat heart and eyes. On the twenty-fifth of January, one of his colleagues said in the article in the Nature magazine, that his group managed to spend a return experiment — to grow the pancreas for the mouse in the rat and successfully transplanted it. The body operated more than a year.
An important condition for the success of experiments with chimerers is the correct ratio of the size of the combined organisms. For example, earlier scientists tried to create chimeres of pigs and rats, but the experiment was unsuccessful. Much more compatible people, cows and pigs are much more compatible. The team of width Belmont preferred to use a chimera with a man’s pig simply because to use the last cheaper than cows.
Moreover, history already knows the cases of human people, although the society does not call them, and they themselves can not guess about it. In 2002, a resident of Boston Karen Keigan was a genetic test to determine if she could transplant the kidney of one of her relatives. Analyzes showed the impossible: the patient’s DNA did not correspond to the DNA of its biological sons. It turned out that kygan had congenital chimerism, which develops at the embryo as a result of a failure in the process of fertilization: its body contained two genetic set, one in blood cells, the other — in cells in the tissues of its body.
Formally, chimera can be called a person who transplanted someone else’s bone marrow — for example, in the treatment of leukemia. In some cases, in the blood of this patient, it is possible to find cells and from its original DNA, and from DNA donor. Another example is the so-called microcherism. In the body of a pregnant woman, there may be a movement of the fetal stem cells, carrying it genome, into organs of the future mother — kidney, liver, lungs, heart and even the brain. Scientists suggest that it may happen almost with each pregnancy, and such cells can remain in a new place throughout the life of a woman.
But in all these cases, chimera are formed (naturally or not) from two people. Another thing is to combine a person with animals. Tissue transplantation from animals can make it vulnerable to new diseases, which our immune system is not ready. Many also scares the possibility of endowment of animals with human qualities, up to an increase in consciousness. Scientists are trying to assure society and the authorities in that such experiments will be tightly controlled by laboratories and used only for good. National Institutes of US Health (NIH) never financed such developments, referring to their neetics. But in August 2016, NIH representatives stated that they could revise the moratorium (the decision was not yet accepted).
Unlike the NIH, the American army generously finances such experiments. According to the Cardiologist from the Minnesota University of Daniel Garry, his project on the creation of a chimer, in which a pig with a heart was received from another individual, recently received from the military grant $ 1.4 million to the experiments on the cultivation of the human heart.
Undifferentiated stem cells that are actively used in medicine are the basis for the development of brain cells, blood or any other organ. In modern pharmacology and cosmetology, this biological material is a valuable medicine. Specialists have learned to independently grow it for different needs: for example, to take the material of cord blood, which is widely used to restore and strengthen the immune system.
If you explain to understandable language, the ST (stem undifferentiated cells) are «progenitors» of ordinary cells, which are hundreds of thousands of species. Conventional cells are responsible for our health, ensure good work of vital systems, make our heart beat and work the brain, they are responsible for digestion, the beauty of the skin and hair.
Despite the impressive figure of 50 billion pieces, such a valuable material in an adult is in very small quantities. In the bulk of the cell is contained in the bone marrow (mesenchymal cells and stromal cells) and subcutaneous fat, the rest are evenly distributed throughout the body.
Embryo is formed differently. Billions of stem cells are formed after the fission of the zygote, which is the result of the merger of the male and women’s weights. The zygote keeps not only genetic information, but also a sequential development plan. However, in the process of embryogenesis, its only function is division. Other tasks, in addition to transmitting genetic memory to the following generation, no. Sygote division cells are stem, more precisely embryonic.
Adult cells are at rest until any of the regulatory systems give a danger signal. Art Activated and on the bloodstock get to the affected place, where, reading information from «neighborings», turn into bone, hepatic, muscle, nervous and other components, stimulating the internal reserves of the body to the restoration of tissues.
The number of miracle material decreases with age, while the beginning of the reduction falls on a very young age — 20 years. By 70, cells remain very small, this meager residue supports the functioning of the body’s life support systems. In addition, the «aged» st partially lose their versatility, they can no longer reincarnate in any type of fabric. For example, the possibility of transformation into nervous and blood components disappears.
Due to the shortage of hemopoietic components responsible for the bloodstream, a person in old age is covered with wrinkles and is dragging due to the fact that the skin does not receive sufficient food. Embryonic material is the most capable of reincarnation, which means the most valuable. Such STs can be reborn into any kind of fabric in the body, quickly restore immunity, stimulate the organ to regenerate.
It may seem that the varieties of stem cells are only two: embryonic and cells located in the body of a born person. But it is not. They are classified according to polypotency (ability to reincarnate in other types of fabrics):
Thanks to the latest form, as can be understood by the name, you can get any fabrics in the human body. This is not the only classification. The following difference will be to prepare in the method of obtaining:
The embryonic sts are taken in embryos, which are several days. Fetal cells are a biological material assembled from abortion embryos fabrics. Their potency compared to three-day embryos are slightly lower. Postnatal species is biomaterial of a born man extracted, for example, from cord blood.
Studying the properties of embryonic stem cells, scientists concluded that this material is ideal for transplantation, since they can replace any tissues in the human body. Embryonic components are obtained from unused embryos tissue, which are originally grown for artificial fertilization. However, the use of embryos causes ethical objections, as a result, scientists have discovered a new type of stem cells — induced pluripotent.
Induced pluripotent cells (IPS) removed ethical problems without losing the unique properties that are embryonic. The material for their cultivation is not embryos, but the mature differentiated patient cells, which are removed from the body, and after work in a special nutrient medium, return, but already with updated qualities.
The use of st is very wide. Determine areas where they are consumed hard. Most scientists claim that for the treatment of donor biomaterial the future, but additional research should be continued. At the moment, such works are mostly successful, they have positively affected the treatment of many diseases. Take, for example, assistance in the treatment of cancer, the first stages of which have already gave hope for recovery to many patients.
Medicine does not accidentally impose great hopes on microtechnologies. Already 20 years of doctors from all over the world use the mesenchymal bone marrow cells for the treatment of serious diseases, including malignant tumors. The donor of such a material with a set of antigen can be a close relative of the patient who has a suitable blood type. Scientists conduct other studies in the field of treatment of diseases such as liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, kidney pathology, diabetes, myocardial infarction, arthrosis of the joints, autoimmune diseases.
The spectrum of use in treatment is amazing. From Art Make Many Medicines, but a special advantage of transplantation is used. Not all transplants end well due to individual rejection of the material, but the treatment is in most cases successfully. It is used against such ailments:
Methods for using stem cells found their use in the field of beauty. Cosmetology companies are increasingly producing funds with such a biological component, which can be like animal and human. As part of cosmetics, it is labeled as stem cells. It is attributed to the miraculous properties: rejuvenation, whitening, regeneration, restoration of elasticity and elasticity. Some salons even offer stem cell injections, but the introduction of the drug under the skin will be expensive.
Choosing this or that means, do not be fooled on the «fishing rod» of beautiful statements. This biomaterial has nothing to do with antioxidants, and rejuvenate for a decade in one week will not work. Please note that such creams and serum will cost a penny, because the production of stem cells is a difficult and time-consuming process. For example, Japanese scientists are trying to force the snails to allocate more mucus with the content of cherished material in laboratories. Soon this mucus will be the basis of new cosmetics.
For many years, scientists have already been working on the creation of working tissues and organs from cells. Most often, the cultivation of new tissues from stem cells is practiced. This technology is worked out for many years and consistently brings success. But it is impossible to fully ensure the necessary number of organs, since it is possible to grow an organ for a particular patient from its stem cells.
Scientists from the UK managed that so far did not work anyone — reprogram the crates and grow the working body of them. This will allow in the foreseeable future to ensure the bodies for the transplantation of all to whom it will be necessary.
Growing organs from stem cells is familiar with the doctors for a long time. Stem cells are the progenitis of all cell cells. They can replace any damaged cells and are intended to restore the body. The maximum number of these cells is in children after birth, and with age decreases with age. Therefore, gradually the possibilities of the body are reduced to self-healing.
The world has already created a lot of full-ficked operational organs from stem cells, for example, in 2004 and in Japan, they created capillaries and blood vessels. And in 2005, American scientists managed to create cerebral cells. In 2006, the valves of the human heart from stem cells were created in Switzerland. In the same 2006 in Britain created liver tissues. Until today, scientists dealt with almost all the tissues of the body, even their teeth were grown.
A very curious experiment was held in the USA — there were a new heart on the frame from the old.
The main lack of an existing method of cultivation of organs is the need for their production of their own patient stem cells. Not far from each patient you can pick up stem cells and, especially since everyone has ready-made frozen cells. But recently, researchers from the University of Edinburgh managed to reprogram the cells of the body in such a way that they allow them to grow the necessary organs from them. According to forecasts, the broad application of this technology will be possible at about 10 years.
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