Four-legged friends are an integral part of our life. It is difficult to imagine how humanity lived without such loyal assistants. The origin of dogs is a question for which there is still no unambiguous answer. There is a huge number of versions, more than a thousand genetic experiments and examinations were carried out, but the question remains open. Let’s try to figure out the existing hypotheses and find out why around the domestication of our four-legged friends so much secrets.
The dog is a predatory mammal of the pet family. According to the evolutionary theory, in the first era of the Paleogenic period — Paleocene (about 50 million years ago) there was already a detachment of predatory, which, in turn, was divided into two subjournal: cat-shaped and pic. One of the first representatives of the second subdier consider such an animal as a freezer. Carefully having studied his fossil remains, it can be concluded that he looked like a dog: a wide mouth, sharp fangs, high paws, a long body. Over time, this subverse was divided into three groups.
The first group included representatives of the descendants of the forerocyon, the second is a family of Borophage, and the third — wolf. It is the last family and the origin of dogs are closely related to each other, because, according to evolutionary theory, our four-legged friends occurred from wolves.
The expeditions of Ch. Darwin on the Beagle ship allowed him to travel in various countries. He, like no other, studied the origin of dogs and tried to find out the truth. Ch. Darwin established an interesting pattern, which was that the breeds of dogs in certain territories are very similar in their external signs on the representatives of the kind of wolves living there. So, for example, in one region, the home dog was very similar to the lives living there, and in the other — on Shakalov. Dog breeds really lived in various territories, similar to local predators.
Thus, some scientists believe that the origin of dogs is due to the fact that in the framework of uncontrolled reproduction, there was a crossing of various animals: foxes, wolves, sacks, coyotes (since each representative of 39 pairs of chromosomes, they can really have a hybrid generation). As a result, each breed had common traits of similarities with one or another species, but at the same time significantly different from it. After all, indeed, some breeds are very similar to foxes, and some on the sacking. And if adding selection and artificial selection to this, then it is possible that the origin of the breeds of dogs is connected with the crossing of animals of one family.
Despite the fact that the dog still belongs to the form of wolves, some scientists believe that it originated from Prasobaki. Perhaps 30-40 million years ago there was another detachment of predators, which is the progenitor of a home dog. There are information that the remains of ancient animals were found in the excavations, similar to dogs. However, there is no scientific base and confirmation of this point of view.
As we have already found out, the history of the origin of dogs has not been fully studied. It is difficult to say with one hundred percent accuracy from whom they have occurred. But even more interest is in artificial selection and selection. There are about four hundred different breeds of dogs. They differ among themselves with increasing, weight, color, form of ears and tail and many other markers of domestication.
The type of activity, the main purpose of which is the elimination and improvement of breeds of dogs, is called dog breeding. Selective selection is primarily based on the purpose of the removal of one or another breed of dogs. There are three directions: decorative, hunting and service. For each there are certain requirements: weight, growth, head, muzzle, nose, etc.
The smallest breed of dogs is, of course, Chihuahua. One of its representatives of the bucket will weigh 600 grams and has a height of 10 centimeters. Chukhuahua is a cute companion animal. They are very shy, curious and observed. But the biggest dog (German Dog breed) — Zeus, has an height of 110 cm and the weight of about 70 kg. This giant dog breed is very good and playful, but only in relation to the owners. Representatives of this species are quite often trained as bodyguards.
The origin of the word «dog» is also covered by a variety of secrets and mysteries. In Russian, it appeared in the 12th century. There is a huge number of versions about the origin of this word. Someone believes that it happened from the Turkic «Kobyak», which translates as «domesticated predatory animal.» Over time, Slavs turned it into a more easily pronounced «Dog». A more scientific version, to which such scientists, like Miller and Fascmer, are inclined, is that the word «dog» occurred from Iranian Sabāka, which is translated as «fast.» Up to 12 centuries, the animal called «Dog» or «Hort». Moreover, it is interesting that the «dog» was used for dogs with thick wool, but «Hort», on the contrary, for smooth-haired rocks.
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