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Two years ago, Kiev engineer Vladimir Tatarenko hung on Youtyuba Roller «Airplane with a rescue device». On the video, the ordinary passenger liner suddenly begins to fall due to fire in the engine, but people do not die — they saves the capsule, which catapults the entire interior through the tail of the aircraft and then slowly descends on the ground on the parachute. Nobody noticed the video: he did not score a single comment and even ten thousand views. Popularity came sharply after a plane crash in the Sinai Peninsula, in which 224 people died. In the Street FX Motorsport & Graphics community video collected more than 18 million views.
Tatarenko patented his system back in 2010. He worked most of his life at the Kiev Aviation Plant and more than once entered the Catastrophe Investigation Commission. «It leaves a certain imprint, you begin to think: what in the design of the aircraft goes wrong, as I would like? All characteristics are improving, materials are more modern and durable, some systems have four degrees of protection, but at an accident it does not give anything, because it is fleeting. One way is to have time to evacuate all, «the inventor told.
Capsule with chairs for passengers and crew, according to the idea of Tatarenko, should be separated from the fuselage in two or three seconds. At first, a special parachute flies out of the tail part, which trail pulls the capsule itself.
Why this system is not used
First, the capsule cannot be embedded in the existing Boeing and Airbus models, which most airlines use. Ideally, new aircraft should be designed for this system, and this may take 10-15 years and require huge financial investments. So that air carriers and the International Organization of Civil Aviation (ICAO) took up such a large-scale project, they must be confident in the reliability of the system. And it is impossible to prove it now.
«Americans, for example, made a similar separated cabin on a fleece aircraft F-111. But the likelihood of salvation was obtained by such methods 50 to 50, a maximum of 65 out of 100. This is not enough, «says Majori General Honored military pilot of the Russian Federation Vladimir Popov. — In particular, when installing such a system, the aircraft would be heavier than tons for five — and no matter how much thrust takes, energy reserves, so that everything worked as it should? Studies were completed. And now the combat aviation went on an unequivocal path: a means of salvation — catapult. «
The introduction of such a capsule will lead to the fact that the aircraft designed for 200-300 people will be able to carry in half less twice as expensive, while without one hundred percent guarantee of passenger rescue in the event of a disaster.
In 1975, in the United States, the descendant of Russian emigrants Boris Popov fell from a height of 120 meters together with Deltaplan, which suddenly failed. Survive managed only thanks to many years of gymnastics: the pilot was grouped on time and prepared for the blow of water.
Five years after that, Popov opened the company Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS), which was engaged in the production of parachutes for small aircraft. Already in 1982, the first parachute was released for a light sports aircraft, and after another year the system for the first time saved the life of the pilot at the accident. Principle of work is simple: the system reacts within one second to the emergence of an emergency and quickly throws the parachute, which gradually reduces the aircraft drop and provides a relatively mild landing.
In the entire history of the existence, BRS sold more than 29 thousand parachute systems to manufacturers of light aircraft Cirrus, Flight Design and Cessna. Thanks to this, as noted in the company, more than 300 people managed to save lives.
Due to the imperfection of materials. Modern parachute fabrics are able to withstand only small aircraft with five-six passengers, it is currently developing a stronger system for 12-seater aircraft.
«To safely pull the plane to the ground, it is necessary to proceed from the formula» 1 pound weight — 1 square foot parachute fabric. » Suppose to pull the Boeing 747, you will need half a million square feet of fabric, for Airbus A320 — about six parachutes, each of which will be the size of a football field, «the inventor noted in an interview with Engineering and Technology Magazine. In this case, either the limit values of aircraft carrying capacity can be exceeded, or it will have to radically reduce the capacity, which will bring losses to airlines.
According to Popov, it is necessary to wait when they create a tissue that will weigh ten times less than the current one, but it will be very strong. Then the use of parachutes for large aircraft will also be safe, and economically appropriate. According to the forecast of the inventor, only for the creation of such tissues takes 5-10 years.
The most unusual system of rescue aircraft is invented by Moldovan Alexander Balan. It does not use the capsules, nor parachutes — the essence is that when an accident and strike, the plane does not explode, and the passengers do not receive serious damage.
In kerosene, a mixture is injected with a classified formula, which turns fuel into a solid, as a frame resembling sand. Thanks to this, as Balan says, it is possible to avoid explosion or ignition kerosene.
The second system is a hybrid substance that is stored in special titanium capsules. Eight seconds before the intended crash, the system automatically spray this substance, during contact with the air its volume increases 416 times in three seconds. As a result, the foam in the form of small balls takes a firm form, surrounds the passenger and does not allow him to move even with a very strong push or impact. After 30 seconds, the substance becomes liquid again and frees people.
The development of the Balan security system is engaged in ABE SA, which is based in the United States and is trying to attract investments for final tests. The co-founder of the company Tim Anderson notes that when the aircraft falls, the system is able to protect passengers from overload 100 g (with the «Formula 1» crash, 40 g overloads are encountered).
«If the plane has not collapsed in the air, the system will work optimally. Even with the refusal of engines at the pilot, there is a chance to make a relatively safe landing, not a nose to the ground. In this case, our system can save the life of passengers and facilitate injuries, «Anderson said.
Why this system is not used
The invention of Balan supported the International Organization of Civil Aviation (ICAO), told «Medusz» Anderson, so serious experts will be followed by its tests.
Doubts first of all concern medical records — it is not clear what passengers will breathe when they will cover foam, whether the foam will fill the airways of passengers and so on.
Another system of capsular salvation passengers patented Hamid Khalidov, a former adviser to the Presidium of the Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Invention and Innovation. He came up with his own method and discharged in less than two weeks. The first thought came on March 9, 2000, when the Yak-40 aircraft crashes at Sheremetyevo airport, Artem Borovik died. «I treated him so much to his work, that this story was very accurate, I began to think with my son to think how to separate the fate of passengers from the fate of the aircraft. It was inspiration, so let’s justify on March 23, we went to file documents for more than 10 patents about this, «says the inventor.
The Khalidov system is that rescue capsules with passengers break away from the plane, destroying it.
In 2000, Khalidov asked the Russian government about the assistance in the production of capsules, but did not receive any response. He even met with the chief designer of the Tu-334 aircraft, the serial production of which was not launched. According to the inventor, after half an hour of communication, the Tu-334 constructor, previously engaged in a soft landing of rocket systems, recognized the need and utility of the capsule method.
Why this system is not used
According to aircraft designers, the method with the destruction of the aircraft parts is too dangerous due to explosives on board, which will be installed for the departure of the capsule: detonation may randomly occur even in the case of lightning strike. In addition, the minuses described in the first paragraph (lack of technologies, instability of work) are preserved.
This idea comes to everyone who ever thought about saving passengers from a falling aircraft.
Why this system is not used
First, even to open the door at high altitude, you will need time. First you need to release all the air, depress the plane, but only then go to the exit. If the door is shooting without depressurization, an explosive decompression will occur, which will lead to the instantaneous death of all passengers.
Just jump out of the aircraft will not work either. When flying at a speed of about 900 kilometers per hour, a person will tear the powerful incident air flow. That is why all rescue mechanisms are installed on military aircraft, which includes not only parachute with a catapulty chair, but also an oxygen system with air supply to light, protective helmet and individual mechanisms that are shot above the pilot to disseminate the incident air flow.
Well, then the most elementary:
It is unlikely that a person will be able to put on the parachute correctly, which for the first time sees. That is, you need to learn how to do it in advance. And if you have already decided to fly with a parachute, you have to fly in it all the way.
Parachute even folded occupies a lot of space. Someone, maybe agree to go on the flight without baggage instead that he will be parachute, but many of these will go.
How to teach to use? It is not very easy to wear a parachute, especially in a falling plane and with the surrounding panic.
How to leave the plane passengers? Of course, if the plane starts falling, the panic will not be avoided. Imagine, in what condition people will be, can you think soberly and use the parachute in such a situation?
What is in this case to do older people and pregnant women who are unlikely to be able to take a jump?
Well, in the end, to jump, you need to have big courage. Many will prefer to hope until the last instead of walking in the abyss.
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