Long before the day, the plane of Wright brothers, «aeronautic shell», built by the Russian inventor Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaysky (1825-1890), was set off from the surface of the Earth. This device, to which the designer was obtained by a patent, had all the main features of the modern aircraft. How happened that American, and not Russian inventors became the «godfathers» of aviation?
Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaisky was born on March 9, 1825 in the family of an offacarious seaman, Admiral of the Russian Fleet Fedor Timofeevich Mozhaysky. A. F. Mozhaisky received upbringing in the Marine Cadet Corps, which he brilliantly graduated from January 19, 1841
The idea of creating an aircraft heavier than air appeared at A. F. Mozhaysky back in 1855, when he began to maintain thorough observations of flying birds and air coils. In 1872, after a number of painstaking research and experiments, he established the relationship between the lifting force and winding resistance at different angles of attack and thoroughly illuminated the question of the flight of birds. German Researcher and Planeter O. Lilientel did a similar job for 17 years later A.F. Mozhaisk.
Lifting force — component of the total pressure of the liquid or gaseous medium on the body moving in it. This force is always directed perpendicular to the speed of the body movement, and the greater the more this speed.
Checking its conclusions and observations in practice, Mozhaisky produced experiments in two directions: on the one hand, he worked on the screws that had to create a craving aircraft in the air, on the other — over the models of the aircraft themselves.
In 1876 A.F. Mozhaisky, according to the testimony of the Bogoslovsky engineer, «he climbed into the air twice and flew comfortable on the air snake. In addition to experiments with air serpents, he worked on creating flying models of his future aircraft, as a result of which the first flying model of the aircraft was built in September.
This model, called by them, «feet», consisted of a small fuselage boot, to which one rectangular carrier surface was attached — wing. The model of the model was created by three air screws, one of which was located in the nose of the boat, and the other two in specially made slopes of the wing. The screws were driven by the head of the clock spring. Steering surfaces (horizontal and vertical) were rendered back. For takeoff and landing, the model had four wheels located under the fuselage. The model made sustainable flights with a speed of over 5 m / s with an additional load of about 1 kg.
It should be noted that A.F. Mozhaisky, like V.Ya. Danilevsky, in his profession was far from aviation. It was more attracted another element — water. But this did not prevent the counter-admiral Mozhaisk to become the inventor of the aircraft.
As wrote in those years «Kronstadt Bulletin», on the tests of the model of the aircraft A.F. Mozhaysky was invited to the Special Commission, which was part of D. I. Mendeleev. With admiration, they watched as a small aircraft rising once at once into the sky and circled there until the clockwork was finished.
After the flight flights showed that the path that A.F. was elected Mozhaisky was correct, he began to make a detailed development of the project of its aircraft in full size. However, if the preceding work of the inventor could perform on its own limited funds, the construction of the aircraft in its original amount required the costs of significant monetary amounts, which he did not have.
January 20, 1877 by order of the Military Minister of Count B.c. Milyutin for review A.F. Mozhaysky was formed by a special commission, which included D.I. Mendeleev. After two meetings, the Commission submitted a detailed report on the Mozhaisk project to the Chief Engineering Department. Thanks to the support of D.I. Mendeleev, it was decided to let the inventor of 3,000 rubles (money at the time huge) for further work and oblige him to submit a program of experiences over the device.
February 14, 1877 A.F. Mozhaisky presented his program of experiments on the models of the aircraft. It provided for the study of air screws, determining the size and forms of steering and carrier surfaces, the specific load on the wing, resolution of the issue of controllability and the strength of the aircraft.
For preliminary studies A.F. Mozhaisky spent about 15 years. Clean the same time on the construction of an aircraft — a non-disabilities. And the inventor coped in less than 5 years — by the beginning of 1882 the plane was ready.
After receiving only a part of the promised amount (2192 rubles), the inventor undertakes to exercise his program. He had to work in very difficult conditions. But, despite difficulties and extreme need, A.F. Mozhaisky soon built a new airplane model. This model, according to the testimony of contemporaries, «flew completely freely and descended very smoothly; The flight happened and then when the cort was put on the model, which represents the load very significant size. The invention of Mozhaysky was already on testing several well-known specialists and earned their approval … The most invention is kept secret. «
In the spring of 1878 A.F. Mozhaisky decided to move to the construction of the aircraft in a natural value. On March 23, 1878, he turned to the main engineering department with a memorandum, which indicated that the data required to resolve the issue can only be obtained above the device of such sizes on which the force of the machine and the direction of the device could be managed by a person, «and requested Vacation of funds for the construction of an airplane, the cost of which they were determined at 18,895 rubles.
The Molley «Rapid Snapper», designed by A. F. Mozhaisk. Like a modern aircraft, he had all the main nodes — the fuselage, wings, tail plumage, control and power plant.
For the first time, developing the fuselative type of aircraft, Mozhaisky, for 30 years, Opere-Lilstern European and American designers, who only in 1909 began to build such aircraft. And Ilya to use the lolk fuselage for the landing on the will was first implemented in 1913 by another Russian designer and inventor D.P. Grigorovich — the creator of the first boat gelroeroplane.
The proposal of the designer was considered by the Special Commission, which was presented with detailed drawings of the aircraft, based by calculations, and an explanatory note containing the description of the device.
As engines provided for the installation of two steam machines with a total capacity of 30 hp. One of the cars was to work on the nasal pulling screw, and the other — through the transmission to two rear pushing screws. The device, according to the inventor plan, could land and water, for which the fuselage was granted a form of a boat.
In addition to the development of the project, A.F. Mozhaisky described in detail the technique of takeoff of his aircraft and provided for the installation of air navigation equipment on it: a compass, a speed meter, a barometer-high-volume, two thermometers, three beyometers and a sight for the production of bombing — the plane, according to its plan, was intended for bombardment and intelligence purposes.
Despite the fact that AF. Mozhaisky came across the frank misunderstanding of the importance of aviation development in Russia, he continued to work on his invention. After two years, when working drawings were manufactured and a number of additional experiments were carried out, clarifying calculations, A.F. Mozhaisky to protect himself from numerous «Deltsov» from the ministry seeking to assign someone else’s achievement or sell it abroad, decided to patent his invention.
Quite confident in the reality of his invention, deciding to bring to the end of the started case, A.F. Mozhaisky appealed to the sea minister S.S. Leskovsky in order to obtain funds to build steam machines, whose drawings were developed. When the money was finally obtained, the designer gave an order for the manufacture of two steam machines according to the project developed by him. In 1881 cars were made. One of the cars developed power in 20l.s. With a weight of 48 kg. Another car had a power of 10 hp With weighing 29 kg. Couples in the car received from the boiler weighing 65 kg. The fuel served Kerosene.
Having received cars, A.F. Mozhaisky started assembling the aircraft. For the production of some works, the inventor appealed to the Baltic Plant. But the Directorate of the Plant, having learned that the inventor has no money, refused to him. Then he again appeals to the royal government with a request to let 5000 rubles for the assembly and testing of the aircraft. «The highest command» request A.F. Mozhaissky was rejected. But still the construction of the aircraft was brought to them to the end — for money reversed from the sale of personal belongings and busy from relatives and stakeholders, he ended in the spring of 1882. He graduated from an airplane assembly.
According to the testimony of contemporaries, the finished apparatus of AF. I may have a wooden boat. Rectangular wings were attached to boats, slightly curved up. The boat, the wings and the tail of the aircraft were covered with a thin silk matter impregnated with varnish. The device stood on the chassis with wheels. Both of its cars were located in front of the boat. The plane had three four-odd screws and two steering wheel — horizontal and vertical. The span of the wings of the aircraft was about 24 m at the length of the fuselage of 15 m. With flight weight, about 950 kg, the beneficial load of the aircraft was 300 kg, and the estimated flight speed did not exceed 40 km / h with a total capacity of cars 30 hp
In the summer of 1882, the plane was ready for testing. For running aircraft A.F. Mozhaisky built a special take-off track in the form of a sloping wooden flooring.
On July 20, 1882, representatives of the military department and the Russian technical society were gathered in the Military Field in the Red Selo (near St. Petersburg). The most inventor was not allowed to fly, since he was already 57 years old at that time. The test of the aircraft in the air was entrusted to Assistant A.F. Mozhaysky — Mechanics I.N. Golubev.
June 4, 1880 A.F. Mozhaisky appealed to the Department of Trade and Manufactory with a request for the issuance of a patent for the Patent invented by him «the exclusion projectile» and received it on November 3, 1881. It was the world’s first plane patent, and he was issued to the Russian inventor — the sailor, captain 1 rank a . Mozhaisk.
In the 70s XX century In the Central Aerohydrolinsky Institute of the TsAGI) an attempt was made to answer the question: «Could the Mozhaysky aircraft fly?». Modern calculations have shown that the aircraft with three engines was able to fly. A very little time was not enough Mozhaysky in order to become the first avitator.
Airplane, pilotable I.N. Golubeva, typing at the end of the runout the required speed, rose into the air and, flying some distance in a straight line, sat down. When landing, an airplane wing was damaged. Despite this, A.F. Mozhaisky was pleased with the test results, since for the first time the possibility of a person’s flight on the apparatus is harder to be almost proved. It seemed to be now provided with universal recognition and support from the government. However, in fact, everything turned out otherwise.
«Is it possible to consider the planning of the Mozhaisk aircraft after overclocking on the inclined track of the first flight of the device heavier than air?» Members of the Commission doubted. Soon the conclusion of the Commission of the Military Ministry was followed — for the flight «aeronautical projectile» A.F. Mozhaisk power installed on it engines was not enough.
The inventor agreed with the conclusions of the Commission. He himself understood this lack of his plane and already ordered another steam car at the factory. Unfortunately, Alexander Fedorovich did not have time to establish it on the advanced design of its apparatus. In 1890, at the age of 65, he died.
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