The flight height indicator is different types:
True is called the value actually separating the aircraft from the surface of the Earth or water; The relative indicator determines how much the plane rose above the point adopted for the conditional reference (the runway); The absolute height means the distance from the liner to the sea level.
The height on which the air transport rises is due to the laws of physics: the farther from the surface of the Earth, the more rarely the air becomes. As a result, the aircraft raised by 10,000 m, quickly moves and spends not enough fuel. This feature is associated with the term «ideal height» — it means that the liner is at the level of where the best ratio of the speed and consumption of fuel is ensured.
But why are the planes do not rise above? The role is played by technical moments. After all, excessive atmosphere is not useful: air flows support the plane like water in the ocean — the ship. If you rise above 12,000 m, the liner will lose stability, since its wings will be useless.
True, the rule applies only to passenger air transport. Military aircraft are capable of climbing above, but all records beat models built on the development of NASA. The drone ship called «Helios», performs flights at an altitude of 30 km.
What a plane flies at height is determined by the following nuances:
aircraft model; loading capacity; speed; loading air corridors; permissible fuel consumption; The amount of oxygen and the atmosphere is affected.
Why is the standard version for civil aviation — 10,000 m? This affects a number of factors:
Reactive engines require cooling. If you rise by 10,000 m, the temperature overboard will be 50 ˚C. For the current aircraft will not be a tragedy failure of 1 engine, but birds getting into the turbine is undesirable. For this reason, the ship rises to the level where the pennate does not come true. If an unexpected situation arises, crew and dispatchers will have more time to make decisions. At this level, the liner is above the clouds. The bad weather will influence it less.
The development of Airbus and Boeing companies allow Laineras to rise above — by 13,000 m, since their engines are more powerful than that of Tu-154. For the last maximum permissible height -12 100 m.
Explanations also gives John Cox — former captain U. S. Airways, who retired and founded a consulting company in the field of airline safety. In an interview for USA Today, he answered a number of questions:
How much can a plane climb without getting damage?
The determination of the height of the flight is based on the data complex, therefore it is established individually. If you want to know the exact indicator, listen to the ads that the pilot makes.
The first aircraft designed by the Wright brothers was rising above the Earth only 3 m. When designers managed to achieve the level of the top of the Eiffel Tower, they made a sensation. And learn more, at what height and how the current aircraft fly, you can from the video:
The height is also determined depending on the type of vessel: in civil aviation, the pursuit of the indicator is not needed, and fighters used to rise higher. But for the current military aircraft, the speed with which they will perform the task and return to the database. The reason for this was the development of technologies, since air-to-air rockets are knocked down fighters at any height.
But the ability of military aircraft to rise higher than the usual, persists. Some models of the famous U-2 reach the indicator 27 km! In this case, the pressure is so low that the pilots have to wear special costumes. Spilled air plays on hand to developers of jet models: those develop speed.
If aircraft fly at approximately one height, can the ship, the next flight «Moscow-Paris» face returning from France to the capital of the Russian Federation? After all, 5,000 liners are in the air at the same time (you will see in the online mode on a special site). Do not worry: all complex moments are foreseen in civil aviation. There is no reason to guess how many aircraft are now in the air and how they manage to disarm.
The liners fly on certain tracks, so everyone has their own «air road». And in order to avoid headquarters, airport services developed a system of echelons (vertical tracks).
This means that in the direction of Moscow-Paris, the liner will take one height, and when returning it slides down slightly lower. There will be a minimum of 300 m between the courts.
Who sets the height of the flight for a particular passenger plane? To answer the question, you will have to remember that the movement is carried out on the paved air routes. The liners fly not directly, but from one set point to another. The trajectory is developed taking into account the cost of fuel, and the range must be minimal.
Looking at the image of the routes, you can decide that the aircraft moves along the arc. After all, information is displaced even on monitors in the cabin! But the reason is simple: the earth is round, and the cards or screens are flat. Distortion when mapping data can not be avoided, so it seems that the plane is moving along a large parabole.
Routes do not always pass in a straight line. Models with 2 engines in flights through the ocean is not allowed to be removed from airports where you can make an emergency landing.
The control system of this movement is not carried out by pilots, but dispatchers. After all, the captain on board does not always see the proximity of other liners. Even if he notes the approaching «Boeing», there will be little time before the collision. Therefore, the navigation implements the dispatch service.
Seeing that another comes to the aircraft, the dispatcher gives the command to change the height. Sometimes adjustments to the course and flight speed are made. A radar system is helped to cope with the tasks, showing the real location of the aircraft. When the liners turn out to be too close, it gives a signal; She reacts to an excessive decrease in aircraft. Measures provide complete safety for the crew and passengers, so you can safely rest or take a photo of landscapes by the porthole.
With the maximum flight height of the passenger aircraft, everything is extremely clear. But is there a minimum allowable threshold?
Restrictions were indeed established by international legislation. The smallest safe height is denoted by the abbreviation of lsalt. Most often it applies to private aircraft, but the rules must adhere to the airline.
The laws prohibit descend lower than 1000 feet (305 m) over residential buildings and 50 feet (152.4 m) over a person or vehicle. Restrictions are associated with a number of factors, including noise and safety. The rules do not apply to cases where the aircraft goes to land or takes off at the international air corridor.
If you often use air carriers services, then pay attention: Pilots inform passengers about the temperature overboard. But whether you fly in winter or in summer, most often hear that the indicator is — 50 ˚C. Why it happens?
Passenger liners are constructed with the calculation that they will rise to a height of 10,000 m. At this level, the air temperature changes little depending on the time of year. Small oscillations are possible because of various factors, including the weather on the site you fly over.
What is the world record of the height of the flight of the aircraft? He was delivered in 1977, when Alexander Fedotov and his supersonic MiG-31 rose by 37,000 m. Achievement remains a record for aircraft that rise into the air on their own. There are also models delivered on other ships to a certain height and starting from there.
The pilots of civil aviation are controlled by liners at an altitude of a maximum of 13,000 m. Their task is to ensure the safety of passengers and save fuel as much as possible, and not become recordsmen. At the moment of the best indicators reached the model Boeing and Airbus.
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