The existence of «residual authorities» is often given as evidence of Darwinian evolution.
It is assumed that the residual bodies in the bodies of descendants during evolution and development reached the state when they are no longer needed or extremely complex for the current conditions. Thus, from this point of view, some rudimentary organs, in the general sense or extremely useful, or useless, and me the opinion of a number of researchers may even be harmful.
The remains of the tail, like some primates, the vertebrae data make up the tailbone and are necessary for the functioning of the urogenital system and a large intestine, serve to fasten the muscles. Play a role in the distribution of physical exertion on the anatomical pelvis structures, serving an important point of support with a slope. Frames on the body of the embryo gill slots (gills — fisher respiration organs) The folds of the fold in the upper part of the embryo have nothing to do with breathing, these are the ridiculous forms of the language, the lower jaw and neck. Epiphiz disappearing and useless iron, the initial meaning is unknown * regulates a number of other important glands, including pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland and sex glands.
Hair cover on body remnants of wool / fur (hair cover in animals) * Saving a constant body temperature
Wisdom teeth disappearing unnecessary teeth * Food peat
Almonds useless organ, initial importance is unknown the most important body of the immune system, which helps in protecting the body from foreign microorganisms. Men’s nipples sign of breastfeeding ability, which was lost in the process of evolution form at that stage of the embryo development, when its gender is not defined. In the future, they are developing, in full depending on the presence of female hormones.
Blind intestine and appendix
Not so long ago, Appendix was considered a useless and even harmful authority (rudiments). Children who, at an early age, unreasonably removed the outflow of the blind intestine, lagged behind the peers in both physical and mental development, people with «randomly» remote appendixes are more often affected by the many diseases. People with remote appendix are harder to restore the intestinal microflora after infection with any infection
In the Cell-shaped outflow of a blind intestine (appendix) there are group lymphatic follicles (peaer plaque) — clusters of lymphoid tissue.
Appendix mucous membrane is rich in lymphoid fabric, which neutralizes bacteria and toxins
Appendixes is a reliable storage for bacteria, which usually does not enter the contents of the intestine, due to which the organ can be a kind of «farm», where useful microorganisms are multiplied. Modern person does not need this feature (with the disappearance of microflora, bacteria is easily obtained from other people, whereas in ancient times the population density was very low, during epidemics, whole countries died, so appendix was very important)
Appendix is a very important organ in the human body, and in no case cannot be considered rudimentary, that is, not necessary and useless.
Spine man consisting of 33 vertebrae
The human spine consists of 33-34 vertebrae and is divided into 5 departments. The most massive 5 vertebrae is in the lumbar department. There is a very large mass on the lumbar, so the lumbar vertebra are the largest. The vertebrae of the last part of the human spine (tail department) form the tailbone.
The front departments of the coccyx serve to attach the muscles and ligaments involved in the functioning of the organs of the urogenital system and the distal divisions of the large intestine (cleaner, iliac-cleaner and lobel-corkscreen muscles forming the muscle lifting the rear pass, as well as the rear-in-interest-caps). Also, a part of the muscle beams of a large berry muscle is attached to the paddle, which is a powerful hip extensor.
In addition, the tailbone plays a role in the distribution of physical exertion on the anatomical pelvis structures, serving an important point of the support — when the sitting person is tilted forward, the deploy points are deployed bumps and the lower branches of the sedellastic bones; When tilting back, a portion of the load is transmitted to the smoke.
Evolutionary biologists claim that human embryos in the early stages of development have a noticeable tail (this theory especially popularized by E. Geckel, developing the rest of the recapitulation, which was subsequently recognized as false). In reality, the spine of the embryo consists of the same 33 vertebrae, he sticks out from due to different growth rates. In the course of the development of the embryo, the surrounding parts overtake the spine in growth and as a result he ceases to perform over the surface of the body.
Thus, the tail vertebrae in humans, which make up the tailbone, have a rather important functional value and are not a «rudimentary tail».
Zhabra is a respiratory body absorbing oxygen from water and excreasing carbon dioxide (mainly in fish).
Evolutionists are argued that folds of the embryo (see Figure) are gowns, which indicates that among the ancestors of man there were fish or other aquatic beings with gills (this theory was particularly popularized by Geckel, developing the law of recapitulation, which was subsequently recognized as false).
In fact, human embryos never had a gills. Observed folds are only pharyngeal gaps that develop into organs that have nothing to do with breathing. Pull squeezed gaps are separated by Plug Arches, which occur in the ridge on the outer area of the embryo neck. The first arch participates in the development of the person, and also develops in the hammer and anvil in the middle ear. From the second pharyngeal arch is formed stirring the middle ear. Of the fourth and sixth arch, most of the muscles of the larynx, pharynx and soft sky are developing.
Human embryos never had a gills and at all stages the embryo passes only part of the development process for the formation of a child. As God planned, a person is man, since the conception.
It is accepted to believe that the teeth of wisdom are called, because they appear much later than the rest of the teeth, at the age when a person is presumably wiser than in childhood.
Evolutionists believe that teeth of wisdom, these are disappearing teeth (before them, allegedly, was more) — the evidence of the fact that the human jaw has become less compared to the human skull during evolution.
No evolutionist was able to explain how smaller jaws give an advantage in evolution, helping people to survive.
Previously, the dentists presented masters to escape patients with teeth, the person as a rule lost its large indigenous. Shifting, wisdom teeth replaced the loss, providing a normal ability to chew.
Some followers of evolutionary theory, consider the epiphydrous and not necessary organ, due to the lack of assignment. This is due to the fact that the sishkovoid body long time was poorly studied. It is worth making a note that such an organ in animals was also poorly understood and is not clear, for which, from the point of view of evolution, he appeared at all.
The secretory cells of the epiphysea are separated into blood hormone melatonin, synthesized from serotonin, which is involved in synchronization of circadian rhythms (Biorhythms «Sleep — wakefulness») and may affect all hypothalamic-pituitary hormones, as well as the immune system. Adrenoglomerologotropin (Farell 1959) stimulates the production of aldosterone, biosynthesis is carried out by restoring serotonin. The famous common features of epiphyse include:
In children, epiphyus has large sizes than in adults; Upon reaching sexual maturity, melatonin decreases.
The central place in these functions is the production of melatonin, of which the sishkovoid iron is the only known source.
Network almonds in the spaciousness are often called glades.
The almonds were once considered a useless (rudimentary) authority, although in reality, almonds play an important role in the immune system. It is currently known that almonds are the first line of defense against alien pathogenic microorganisms.
«Fewer tonsillectomies are performed today than in the past because it is now known that the tonsils remove many of the pathogens that enter the pharynx; therefore, they are a first line of defense against invasion of the body»
«Less Tonsillectomies are held today than in the past, since it is now known that almonds remove many pathogens who are included in the pharynx, so they are the first line of defense against the invasion of the body.» Investigation of life 10th edition, Mader, McGraw Hill, 2003 copyright P293.
Almonds (Glands) are not a rudimentary organ.
Before the start of puberty, the chest of girls and boys is no different. Male milk iron has a fundamentally the same structure as women’s, but with a normal hormonal balance of the body does not develop.
One of the early scientific theories assumed that the nipples in men are a sign of breastfeeding ability, which was lost in the process of evolution. However, later studies have shown that none of the male individuals of primates and other mammals has ever possessed such a function of the body.
Currently, it is considered that the nipples are formed at that stage of the embryo development, when its gender is not defined. And only later, when the embryo begins to produce hormones independently, you can determine who will be born — a boy or a girl. Therefore, male nipples remain from the moment of intrauterine development.
Pental human embryo, all 33 vertebra and folds are visible — future parts of the head
Organizric value (from the position of evolution) Actual meaning
Panda eating bamboo
Despite the fact that Panda belongs to predatory animals, their diet over the overwhelming majority vegetarian. In fact, they eat alone bamboo. On the day, an adult panda eats up to 30 kg of bamboo and shoots. Technically, like many animals, panda are omnivorous. It is so known that panda eat eggs, as well as some insects along with their bamboo diet. Animal food for Panda is a necessary source of protein.
Large pandas have unusual paws, with a «thumb and five ordinary fingers; «The thumb» is actually a viscosity of the wrist.
Panda eating bamboo
The «thumb» of panda has the necessary function in real operating conditions. 2 additional numbers (they are often called fingers) are used for the processing and eating bamboo. Panda uses wrist processes for movements similar to the actions of the claw, to capture the bamboo. If there were no, Panda would be starved or would have very serious problems.
The three-dimensional images we obtained indicate that the radial sesamoid bone cannot move independently of its articulated bones, as has been suggested, but rather acts as part of a functional unit of manipulation. The radial sesamoid bone and the accessory carpal bone form a double pincer-like apparatus … enabling the panda to manipulate objects with great dexterity … We have shown that the hand of the giant panda has a much more refined grasping mechanism than has been suggested in previous morphological models. (Dr. Endo. )
Translation: The obtained 3-dimensional images show that the radial seismine bone cannot move independently of the bone-articulated with it, as proposed, and works as part of the functional block of manipulation. Radial sesamovoid bones and belonging to the shape of the wrist bone in the form of a double tick mechanism … allows panda to manipulate objects with a big dexterity … We have shown that Panda’s paws have a much more exquisite grabbing mechanism than it was proposed in previous morphological models.
The wings of the lacking bird and the eyes of deep-water fish are all the manifestations of evolutionary fad called «Rudiment». The existence of such excesses in the body is not justified, but is stably transmitted from generation to generation. We will tell about the most famous rudiments of a person, and how they arose.
The most famous Rudiment, who had a good ancestors, is the Copchik (Coccyx) — the triangular bone formed by the action of 4-5 vertebrae. Once he formed a tail — an equilibrium maintenance body, which also serves to transfer social signals. As a person becomes the ongoing creation, all these functions moved to the forelimbs, and the need for the tail dropped.
Nevertheless, in the early stages of development, the human embryo has a tailing process, which is often maintained. Approximately one of the fifty thousand babies creates with a tail, which can be easily removed without consequences for the body.
Cell-shaped blind intestine (Appendix Vermiformis) has long ceased to play at least some role in the human body. Presumably, it served for long-term digestion of solid food — for example, croup. The second theory says that Appendix played the role of a tank for digestive bacteria, where they broke up.
Appendix adult has a length of 2 to 20 centimeters, but in most cases it is about equal to ten centimeters. Inflammation of a worm-like process (appendicitis) is a very common disease — it accounts for 89 percent of all the surgical operations of the abdominal cavity.
Third molars (indigenous teeth) received their name for the reason that much later than all other teeth are cut down, at the age when a person becomes «wiser» — 16-30 years. The main function of the teeth of wisdom is chewing, they serve for food inheritance.
However, each third person on Earth they grow wrong — they lack a place in the jaw arc, as a result of which they or begin to germinate to the parties, or injure their neighbors. In such cases, the teeth of wisdom have to be deleted.
Synthesis of Vitamin C.
The lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the body may result in a disease of the Qing with the subsequent fatal outcome. However, a person cannot independently synthesize this vitamin in its body, in contrast to most primates and other mammals.
Scientists have long assumed that a person has existed a body that is responsible for the production of ascorbic acid, but the confirmation of this was discovered only in 1994. Then pseudogen was found, responsible for the production of vitamin C, similar to that there is a Guinean pig. But a modern person has this feature is disabled at the genetic level.
Vomeronasal authority (VNO)
In the social behavior of animals, Pheromones play a dominant role. With their help, the female attract males, and the Kavalians themselves march the territory controlled by him. Most emotions are accompanied by the emission of Pheromones — fear, anger, peace, passion. The person relies more on the verbal and visual components of social communication, therefore the role of feasibility recognition is minimized.
Goosebumps (Cutis Anserina) occur when the sawmother reflex is triggered. The main motives of this reflex are cold and danger. At the same time, the spinal cord produces the excitation of peripheral nerve endings that raise the hair.
So in the case of a cold, raised hair allow you to maintain more thermal air inside the cover. If danger arises, the increase in the hairproke gives the animal a more massive view. A person has a sawmother reflex remains Rudiment, since the thick hairproke was lost in the process of evolution
One of the earliest scientific theories assumed that the nipples are a sign of the ability of a man to breastfeeding, which was lost in the process of evolution. However, later studies have shown that none of the male individuals of our ancestors has such a function of the body.
Currently, it is considered that they are pacified at that stage of the embryo development, when its gender is not defined. And only later, when the embryo begins to produce hormones independently, you can determine who will be born — a boy or a girl.
In this article, we will consider atavisms and rudiments: we will give them definitions and characteristics, we give examples. It should be understood that these are not synonyms. After reading this article, you will find out what the difference between such concepts as Atavisms and Rudimia.
Rudimia is not part of the body at all unnecessary. They only lost, at least partially, their initial purpose. Organs considered rudiments play a certain role in the functioning of the body. Try, for example, take away the wings from the ostrich. Without them, this animal will be worse or better? The answer is obvious: although his wings are less functional than other birds, they need an ostrich. Wings to him, for example, allow the balance when moving the balance.
New Zealand is found parrot Cacapo. He, like an ostrich, does not know how to fly. However, he has small wings, muscles on which atrophied, as well as underdeveloped keel. This animal leads the night lifestyle. He runs on the ground and loves to climb on the trees. Something from the life of birds, nevertheless, he still does. Parrot, climbing on a large height, performs occasionally jumping, using just for planning with its wings. However, this jump ends most often unsuccessfully. «Bird» often flour against the ground. The parrot is not adapted to climb trees. However, this is its main occupation. But it is fully adapted to the flight, since the body of this bird is identical according to the design of another parrot (with the exception of individual aspects). But Kakapo does not know how to fly. However, he tries that sometimes ends sad.
Thus, rudimia can be useful, but they are always the remnant of something that in the past it was much more efficient. This parrot wings are rudimentary, as they have lost their ability (partly) to fulfill their previous functions. The same story with ostrich. He is no longer able to fly, but he remained wings (as well as hollow bones of the skeleton, which for full-fledged birds are typical).
No exceptions here and man. We also have atavisms and rudiments. Examples of the latter — Appendix, which is the body, of course, useful. However, our ancestors have its significance — in digestion of food, he played a more important role. Therefore, Appendix is Rudiment. But sometimes it is more complicated to determine what role Rudiment and Atavisms are played. For example, answer the question, for which the indigenous teeth are necessary for us today, is not so simple. It is known that the pain and the troubles delivered by them make us sometimes turn to the surgeon.
One of the most famous human rudition is, perhaps appendix. The notion of appendicitis (inflammation of this heart-shaped process) is closely connected with it. In surgical practice, which is interesting, Operations about appendicitis are one of the most frequent. The disease often pays serious complications in the form of an abscess (an embedder was formed) and peritonitis (covering the abdominal cavity fabric is inflamed).
However, Appendix carries and useful functions. It supports microbiological balance in the intestines, contributes to adequate digestion, and also supports local immunity, since it contains a large amount of lymphoid tissue.
One of the most important evidence of evolutionary theory is atavisms. They are quite common and today are well studied. Atavisms are called signs that manifest themselves in a certain individual and do not correspond to the species common. These are traces that have been preserved due to the fact that they were sometime natural for individuals, which was at a lower level of evolution. She has improved over time its external and functional qualities, getting rid of gradually from unnecessary signs. But in the genetic code, the traces of the individual of the old sample are preserved, therefore, sometimes atavisms occur. They are present from the very birth of an individual and cannot form during life. This is often the hereditary sign.
The presence of rudiments and atavisms proves the existence of evolution. And now you will make sure that. Mammals, as well as birds, are all reptile ancestors without exception. In turn, the reptiles were ancestors of amphibians, amphibians — fish, etc. It can be argued that atavisms can manifest itself from our ancestors. However, parallel branches will not be able to influence each other. For example, atavisms a person can have from mammals (wool, nipples, tail) and even reptile (the so-called «snake heart»). As you already probably guessed, we also have rudiments only from mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish. And atavisms and rudiments from parallel evolution branches (in our case — birds) are impossible. Also, birds will never show signs of mammals, but they can show signs of reptiles. Thus, the presence of rudiment and attavism in animals (as in humans) is not an accident, but an event is a natural, predicted by evolutionary theory.
Examples of atavisoms in the human body can be given as follows.
An extended cleaner, or tail process. He appears as a result of what Darwin believes, a person has common roots with a monkey who has a tail.
thick hair cover. A person has an abundance of hair on his face and body gives signs of our ancestors. These signs allowed them to exist in different climatic conditions. Such a cover over time began to decrease, but in some cases he reigned into atavism. This atavism is expressed in the surrounding hair on the face (beard in women) and on the body (long thick wool).
The presence of an additional pair of nipples. The fact that a person occurred from a mammal testifies to the presence of three pairs of nipples on the body. These organs are often not functional, but there are cases when, along with the main, the extraty glands also work.
Even if the external manifestation of the trait is completely lost, the genome may still have a long time fragments of genetic «programs», which ensured the development of the ancestors of this feature. One of the main and, perhaps, the most filigree from the principles of regulation in the body of genes is post-transcriptional control. That is, everything that the gene responsible for the development of one or another atavism, «stopped», «obstructing» in the developing embryo cell. Thus, an unnecessary sign is not formed. However, under special circumstances (extreme impacts on embryo, mutations), these gesen programs can still work. It was then that we face anomalies that can sometimes be fatally dangerous (for example, in the case of an oval window, an inconspicuous interdestrian opening).
Rudiments, according to the genetic essence, are practically «unnecessary.» Therefore, they are found in most part of individuals (for example, a person — spheroid vertebrae, indigenous teeth, etc.). It is important to note that these features are not usually significant for individuals. They may even be a potential basis serving for development in the future useful sign. It can be assumed that they will be withdrawn by evolution from the genetic code very soon. Or they will not be removed at all.
Thus, there is a big difference between such concepts as «Atavism» and «Rudiment». The difference lies in the fact that rudimia is manifested by almost all individuals, while atavisms are only some.
What does Charles Darwin think think about this? The founder of the evolutionary theory believed that atavisms and rudiments were the most important sign that people, like other creatures, developed over time to other species. Supporters of this idea are so fascinated by the search for non-working bodies, which in the human body they found them about 200. Their theories were at the moment were refuted. The existence of rudiments and atavisms, of course, no one denies, but the value of them is a controversial moment. It has been proven that most of these bodies have a functional purpose. However, this does not exclude that the genetic predisposition, due to which atavisms and rudiments are formed (examples of them are not limited to those presented in this article) are laid in each organism.
Atavisms and rudiments, examples of which will be considered in our article, are irrefutable evidence of the evolutionary theory of the development of living organisms. What do these concepts mean and what is the value of their discovery for modern science?
Evolution call the development of everything alive from simple to complex. This means that over time, the organisms replaced each other. Each subsequent generation had more progressive features of the structure, which led to their adaptation to new living conditions. And this means that the organisms relating to different systematic units must have similar features.
For example, the front limbs of birds and consist of identical departments. This shoulder, forearm and brush. But since the birds are adapted to the flight this limb they turn into wings, and the water inhabitants are modified into the flocks. These organs are called homologous.
Another evidence of evolution theory is analogies. So, in the insects, and the bats have wings. But in the first, they are derived from epithelial tissue, and the second represents a skin of the front and rear limbs. These organs have a different origin, but have common features of the structure and operation. This phenomenon arose due to the divergence of signs, or divergence.
Atavisms and rudiments, examples of which are studied by comparative anatomy, are also direct evidence of the relationship of all living among themselves.
Some bodies say «Rudimentary». This means it is not enough for the full implementation of the intended functions. And indeed, rudiments call organs that have lost their original importance in the process of evolution. On the one hand, they are a certain extent developed, and on the other — are at the stage of disappearance. Typical examples of rudiments are a change in the shape of the auricle and the degree of muscle development that surround it. Our ancestors every minute had to listen to the approach of danger or long-awaited production. Therefore, the shape of the shell was more acute, and the muscles ensured her movement. Modern person, the ability to move the ears is unlikely to come in handy in everyday life. Therefore, individuals with such skills can be found very rarely.
Insufficiently developed organs inherent in the ancestors are found in animals often enough. Examples of rudiments are the presence of a smoking person, which is the residue of the tail of the spine, as well as the teeth of the wisdom necessary for chewing coarse and untreated food. At this stage, we practically do not use these parts of the body. Appendix is a rudiment that man presumably inherited from herbivores. This part of the digestive system allocates enzymes and participates in splitting processes, but compared with the ancestors is significantly shortened. For comparison: a person has its average length is about 10 cm, and a sheep or camel — several meters.
The list of human rudiments continues the third eyelid. In reptile animals, this structure moisturizes and purifies the outer shell of the eye. In humans, it is motionless, has a small size, and the above functions performs the top eyelid. Rudiment is the scar on the upper sky of a person — this is the root of the next row of teeth, in which a person has no need.
Animal rudiments are hidden inside the bodies of whales limbs, and the buzz of dug-out insects, which are a modified pair of wings. But the serpent of the limbs are not at all developed, because thanks to the peculiarities of their lasting motor system, there is no need for them completely.
Rudimentary organs have plants. For example, boiled weed has a well-developed rhizome, which is an underground escape with elongated interstices. Small scales are well noticeable on it, which are rudimentary leaves. Since underground, it will not be able to perform their basic function — the implementation of photosynthesis, then there is no need for their development. Rudimiment is also a reservoir pestle in the form of a tubercle in a stitching cucumber flower.
Another proof of evolution are atavisms. It can be said that this concept is opposite to rudiments. Atavisms are called manifestation of individuals characteristic of the distant ancestors. Their presence also testifies to a certain degree of kinship in a number of generations. In the early stages of the development of the embryo, there is a tail, and gill bags. If embryogenesis occurs correctly, these structures are terminated. In violation of the development process, individuals with unusual features of the structure may appear. Therefore, the tailed boy and amphibious man is not just a fantasy.
In addition to the appearance of tail typical atavism, human is excessive hair cover. Sometimes it significantly exceeds the norm. There are cases when the hair covered the whole body of a person, except palms and feet feet. Atavism is also considered the emergence of additional mammary glands on the body, and this can occur like women and men. This sign is inherited from mammals who have a lot of children born. At the same time, the need arose to feed all of them at the same time. There is no such need for such a need.
The second row of teeth is also the trait inherent in our distant ancestors. For example, sharks have several rows. It is necessary to predators for effective capture and retention. There is an opinion that atavism can be considered microcephalus. This is a genetic disease that manifests itself in a decrease in the size of the brain and skull. At the same time, all other proportions of the body remain normal. This entails mental backwardness.
A person spries some signs of animals and in the form of reflexes. For example, Ikota is a typical feature of ancient amphibians. This reaction was necessary for them to pass water through the respiratory organs. And which is particularly developed in children, is a manifestation of such in mammals. They grabbed their parents’ wool not to get lost.
Examples of manifestation of the features of the ancestors in animals is the appearance of wool or rear limbs in cetacean. This is the proof of the origin of animal data from extinct empty mammals. Atavisms are also the development of additional fingers from modern horses, moving limbs in snakes and in primroses sometimes there is an increase in the number of stamens up to 10. It was so much ancestors of modern plants. Although modern species have only 5 stamens.
As you can see, rudiment and atavisms are manifested in many species of plants and animals. This indicates a certain degree of kinship between representatives of different systematic units within one kingdom. Evolutionary changes always occur towards their complications, as a result of which living organisms have the opportunity to better adapt to one or another habitat conditions.
Having considered examples of rudiments and atavisms, we were convinced of the common and consistency of the theory of evolution.
According to the theory of evolution, people occurred from the monkey. Millions of years due to this process, the appearance, character, mental capabilities of Homo Sapiens changed, giving him away from the ancestors. The era of technical progress has led the human view of the highest level of evolutionary development. Availability of common ancestors with animal world now
Rudimentary organs are the main example of evidence of the evolution of Charles Darwin, who have been observed for the animal world before reaching the revolutionary conclusion.
Parts of the body directly
Examples of rudiments
Thanks to it, the correct, uniform load on the pelvis. The tailbone is an example of a tail rudiment from a modern person who served as the equilibrium center.
Wisdom teeth —
Modern meal of people more includes thermally processed products, so during evolution the body atrophically. Located in a row, the teeth of wisdom often get out of people in conscious age. The absent phenomenon is the absence of «eights», partial teething.
Epicantus — Rudimentary
The pyramidal muscle of the abdomen continues a list of rudimentary organs representing the triangular form of muscle tissue. The main function is to pull the white belly line.
Encoding it is saved by continuing to transmit its properties to the next generation. They can be called «sleeping», awaken only at the birth of an individual with an atavistic sign. It happens at the loss of genetic control, or with external stimulation.
The main difference of atavism
Atavisms and rudiments equally
Atavisms and rudiments, many are still confused, relating to others. First have
If people do not have external signs of one or another, this does not mean that there are no signs of signs, possessing the ability to manifest itself in the future.
Atavisms are extremely rare in the population and manifest only in cases where the ancient ancestors genes unexpectedly manifest themselves in humans.
Here are the most common and explicit types of human atavism, which make up the following list:
These features clarify the dispute of many about whether the teeth are wisdom, hidden either cutting, rudiment or atavism. They are characteristic of many species, but not all over all. If the teeth were wisdom, or other rudimentary parts of the body were found only in single specimens, it would be possible
Homo Sapiens — a complex organism that has a diverse system of vital activity, changing
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