The woodpecker takes about 12 thousand shots head, while not having no harm! This amazing fact was not amenable to any explanation, because it creates overload of 1 thousand times more than with a free drop. It has been established that some types of woodwood, in the process of tree bark dulling, are able to move the beak at a speed of almost 25 km / h! At the same time, his head is discarded back with a huge negative acceleration, which is more than twice as much as the cosmonauts are experiencing at start! Most recently, a group of scientists from China were able to answer the question: «Why does the headache does not hurt?».
It turns out that the woodpecker has several unique abilities, and an interesting structure of the head.
For the first time to fully decipher the head of the Head Prevention Head from the concussion managed to two American scientists, Aivan Schwarus from the University of California in Davis and Philippe Maja from the University of California in Los Angeles, which in 2006 received for this opening of the Ignobel Prize (this is a premium scientists receive «Opening, causing only laughter first, and then forcing it to think»; in the world of science, this premium is no less popular than Nobel). Biologists investigated this mechanism on the example of the Zlatoloboy Dyatla (
In addition, the cranial box of this bird and its brain separates only a thin layer of intracranial fluid, which does not allow vibrations to gain enough strength for the dangerous impact on the brain. In addition, this liquid is rather viscous, so immediately extinguishes all the waves that arise from impact capable of damaging the most important nervous center.
Also, an important role in protecting the brain from concussions is played by the hyoid — the most important element of the ply-off bone of birds, which in itself is rather cartilage than a real bone tissue. Dyatlov, he is extremely developed, very extensive and long, is located not only in the throat (like in mammals), and comes in the nasophal, turning around before it around the skull. That is, inside the cranial box, this bird has an additional elastic shock absorber.
In addition, as the study of the internal structure of the cranial bones was showed, almost all of them contain spongy porous fabric, which is an additional shock absorber. In this regard, the Skull of Dyatla is rather similar to that of the chick, than in an adult bird (which the share of the spongy substance in the bones is extremely small). So those vibrations that failed to «extinguish» the cranial fluid and Gioid, «soothes» the spongy stuff of bones.
In addition, the woodpecker has another kind of «safety belt» for the eyes — during the strike of the third eyelid (a blinking metering) descends on the eye of this bird to protect the eyeball from the vibration and prevent the retinal detachment. So the vision of the dyatlov, despite the «dumping» lifestyle, is always in order.
Well, of course, so that all these security systems fit in the skull, the woods had to significantly reduce the surface of their brain. However, the stupid of the rest of the birds from this they did not at all — on the contrary, the woodpecker is very smart and has a rather complicated territorial and nesting behavior. The fact is that, unlike mammals, in birds, the processes of higher incidents occur at all in the crust of large hemispheres, but in the striped tales and a layer under it under it, called hyperstratum. And these parts of the brain initially occupy not very large area, because the neurons in them are quite tightly packed. Therefore, the woodpecker can easily compress his brain without prejudice to his intelligence.
So, what does this intelligent bird teach people? Yes, at least how to develop perfect shockproof designs. A similar work was recently done by American scientists from the Berkeley University Bioengineering Laboratory. A thorough study of the delayed video filming of «Dolbiers» and these tomography of Dyatlov allowed them to develop an artificial damping (that is, ensuring safety) a system similar to that of dyatlov.
The role of super hard beak in an artificial damper can play a durable outer shell — for example, steel or titanium. The function of intracranial fluid in this device takes on the second, the inner layer of metal separated from the external, steel, elastic layer. Under it is a solid layer, but at the same time elastic rubber — an analogue of a hyoid. And the «substitute» of spongy structures is to fill the entire empty volume under this rubber tightly packaged glass balls with dimensions of about one milimeter. It is proved that they very effectively «spray» the energy of the strike and block the transfer of dangerous vibrations to the most valuable central part, for which all these systems exist — that is, a certain «brain».
Such a damper, according to developers, can protect various fragile designs, for example, electronics, from strong blows. You can put in such a shell «black boxes» of aircraft, on-board computers of ships or use it when developing cataply devices of a new generation. It is possible that this shell can also be used in the car case as an additional damper.
After creating a miniature prototype, the researchers conducted the first tests of this shell. They placed him into the bullet and from the gas gun shot her in a thick sheet of aluminum. Overload from the blow reached 60000 g, but the damper effectively protected the electronic filling hidden in it. So this system works quite effectively. Now the developers work on the creation of the same big-sized damper.
Chinese scientists investigated the defense of the diagnostic from strikes and vibrations, which, in their opinion, can help create new antiosity materials and structures that can be used in various fields of human activity. Engineers of the State Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment Dalian University found that the whole body of the woodpecker works, as an excellent shockproof mechanism, absorbing influence energy.
The bird coars a tree with a very large frequency (about 25 hertz) and speed (about seven meters per second), which is 1000 times the earth’s gravity. Scientists have made a special 3D computer model using a tomogram to understand exactly the woodpecker protects his brain from damage.
Scientists found out that most of the blow energy is accumulated by the body of the bird (99.7%) and only 0.3% falls on the head of the day. Part of the impact energy takes on the beak of the bird, another part of the poultry poultry. And the small part of the energy, which still falls on the head of the wood, is converted into heat, which is why the brain temperature increases greatly.
The bird is forced to take breaks between the roaming of the tree in order to reduce this temperature.
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